Bolivia Hunting and Fishihg

Santa Cruz
Scheme how to get to the base

Gettin there

Santa Cruz, a surprisingly international city with a population of 1.3 million is the center of commerce in this
agricultural and petroleum boom region. Its low crime rate, thriving economy and extensive oil and gas
production has attracted many American, European and Japanese businessmen. Travel to Santa Cruz is
easy. American Airlines has daily 7.5 hour one-stop overnight flights from Miami which arrive early in the
morning. AeroSur (Bolivia’s air carrier) has 6.5 hour non-stop flights several days a week. Flights back to
Miami usually operate early morning or late evening. A departure tax of approximately $25.00 is assessed
upon departing Santa Cruz.
We strongly suggest you check your luggage from your home city to Miami (not to Santa Cruz), collect the
luggage in Miami and re-check it to Santa Cruz. We also suggest you get to Miami four hours prior to your

Transfer from the place of arrival: No
Information for entry in the country
Documents for entry into the country: 

Travelers to Bolivia must have a visa to enter the country. You can either obtain your visa before you travel or you can obtain your visa when you land in Santa Cruz. We would suggest that you obtain your visa prior to your departure to avoid the possibility of not having the correct items and to avoid delays at the airport when you land in Santa Cruz. It is best to do the application process 45-60 days prior to your departure. It usually takes 2-3 weeks to receive the processed visa back from the Consulate/Visa Service.
The Consulate fee is currently $135 for a tourist visa. Tourist visas are valid for five years.
If you choose to obtain your visa prior to the trip, you will send the following information to Passports Plus and they will work
with the Bolivian Embassy to obtain your visa.
1) Your passport with at least six months of validity beyond your date of departure and it must have two blank visa pages side by side, 2) completed visa application, 3) visa processing form, 4) two passport photos in color, 5) copy of flight itinerary, 6) proof of lodging (our office will provide this for you), 7) yellow fever certificate, 8) notice of sufficient funds (copy of recent bank statement), and 9) consulate fee and service fees.

If you do not get your visa prior to the trip you will need to travel to Bolivia with the following items.
1) Your passport with at least six months of validity beyond your date of departure and it must have two blank visa pages side by side, 2) one passport photo in color, 3) the completed visa application form, 4) proof of lodging, 5) yellow fever certificate, and 6) approximately $135 in US dollars for the visa fee.
Our office can provide you with the visa application form. It is a standard tourist form, with blanks for name, address, passport number, date of birth, etc. We will also provide you with the proof of lodging.
Note: There have been instances where airline check-in persons have not allowed travelers to board a flight to Bolivia without these items in their possession.

Company information
Accomodation and Catering

Kind of accommodation 

  • Lodge
  • Fishing Lodge

    Caсo Negro Lodge, a traditional wood-constructed facility on the Rio Negro/San Simon system is reached via a two-hour Bolivian Adventures private charter. . The new lodge features air-conditioned rooms with private baths, large dining and bar/conversation areas, and a lovely view overlooking huge adjacent spring-fed lagoons. The camp is quite comfortable and offers excellent "front door" opportunities to access multiple species of fish that have never seen a lure or fly.

    Shooting Lodge

    Las Palomas (the doves), offers clients a lovely, air-conditioned Bolivian-style lodge, with Spanish tile roof, hand-painted ceramics throughout, a large jacuzzi tub, twelve large, well-appointed suites and guestrooms with private baths, a massage room, a beautiful pool and adjacent palapa bar, satellite television, internet access, and any and all amenities that make for a wonderfully luxurious stay. The lodge was constructed specifically as a dove hunting headquarters and is located quite close to huge concentrations of birds.

    Las Palomas' highly trained chef, Karin Molina, provides the finest in Continental dishes, along with marvelous Bolivian specialties. Clients literally rave about the food and food presentation. The lounge offers shooters a relaxing atmosphere in which to reminisce about the day's hunt over cocktails, while the jacuzzi provides a comforting end to an exhilarating day in the field. An onsite gun room is offered where guest's guns are stored and cleaned on a daily basis at no additional charge. Of course, Molina also has a large selection of high-quality shotguns available to rent.

    Terms and Conditions: 

    Pre-trip information


    Dove Shooting-only: 3 DAYS - $2065 / 4 DAYS - $2750 (ground transportation to/from the lodge included). Includes
    ground transportation from Santa Cruz and return. Three day minimum, single occupancy. Example of a three day sequence
    is: afternoon of shooting on day of arrival, shoot two full days, then again the departure morning, returning to Santa Cruz
    after lunch.

    Fishing-only: 4 DAYS- $3995, 6/7 DAYS - $5295 (air charters included). Four day minimum, double occupancy. Example
    of a four day sequence is: afternoon of fishing on day of arrival, fish three full days, then again the departure morning,
    returning to Santa Cruz after lunch.

    Fishing-Shooting Combo: 3 DAYS FISHING/3 DAYS SHOOTING - $5295 (air charter to fishing area included). This
    sequence is fly to the fishing lodge, fish the arrival afternoon, then two full days, then again the departure morning, then fly to
    the shooting lodge after lunch, arrive and shoot that afternoon, then two full days, then again the departure morning,
    returning to Santa Cruz after lunch, via ground transfer.

    All meals in the shooting/fishing areas, accommodations, airport transfers, soft drinks, local liquors, beer and wine, laundry,
    shotgun cleaning, guides, boats, all local permits, and the round-trip air charter to and from the fishing area. If you choose to
    bring guns, the permit fee is included in the price. Be sure to have the completed permit application to our office at least 45
    days prior to travel.

    Commercial air travel, airport taxes (approx. $25), visa (approx. $135), shells at $13/box (subject to change), gun rental
    ($60/day) gratuities to bird boys and lodge staff or fishing guides and fishing camp staff, lures and tackle, items of a personal
    nature (such as phone calls), and hotel or meals in Santa Cruz (as required by itinerary). Hotel reservations will cost around
    $100 per room.


    For shooting-only trips: Guests are met upon arrival in Santa Cruz and transferred 1.5 hours via private vehicle to Las Palomas Lodge. Arrival is in plenty of time for lunch and an afternoon hunt. On the last shooting day, after the morning hunt, guests will have lunch then drive back to Santa Cruz to either their day room at the Los Tajibos hotel (if the flight home is late that night), or to the Los Tajibos hotel for an overnight (if their flight home is the next morning).

    For fishing-only trips: Guests are met upon arrival in Santa Cruz, and transferred directly to the charter aircraft terminal for their 2 hour flight to Caño Negro Lodge. Arrival, weather permitting, is in plenty of time for lunch and an afternoon of fishing. On the last fishing day, guests will have a morning of fishing followed by lunch and a 2 hour air charter back to Santa Cruz to either their day room at the Los Tajibos hotel (if the flight home is late that night), or to the Los Tajibos hotel for an overnight (if their flight home is the next morning).

    For fishing-shooting combos: Guests will be met upon arrival in Santa Cruz, transferred to the private charter area, then fly 2 hours to Caño Negro Lodge, arriving in time for afternoon fishing. On the last fishing day, guests will have a morning of fishing followed by an early lunch and a 2 hour air charter to Las Palomas lodge. On the last shooting day, after the morning hunt, guests will have lunch then drive back to Santa Cruz to either their day room at the Los Tajibos hotel (if the flight home is late that night), or to the Los Tajibos hotel for an overnight (if their flight home is the next morning).



    Additional information

    Bolivia is the world's new mecca for high-volume dove hunting. Fifteen to twenty million eared doves (Zenaida Auriculata) migrate from Brazil each April to feed on the literally millions of acres of sorghum, sunflowers and soybeans. They stay until November, offering bird hunting that can only be described as "astonishing." Our hunters here routinely expend 60-80-100 boxes a day on shoots in a great variety of settings.

    We have a fantastic outfitter for our trips in Bolivia. Jorge Molina can be accurately described as "the dean of dove shooting" in first Colombia and for many years now in Bolivia. He and his operations manager, Francisco Gonzalez, have hosted many thousands of American shooters over the last twenty years and his charming lodge, fabulous food presentation and service are really unmatched anywhere else in the continent. Recently returning clients have described his Las Palomas Lodge as "nicer than a Four Seasons Hotel." The lodge is a 30-minute private air charter flight from the Santa Cruz airport.

    Ferocious payara up to fifty pounds abound in the rivers.
    (click to enlarge)
    The "high volume shooting" can be combined with spectacular "high volume fishing" for peacock bass, payara, pacu and other hard-fighting jungle species. It is common for our anglers to catch 20-40 fish a day here, fishing top-water and sub-surface lures and flies! Molina has two options on accommodations for anglers, and both are easily accessed via Bolivian Adventures' private air charters.


    Species for hunting: 

  • Dove
  • Additional documents
    Help with CITES Certificate: 
    Program of a tour

    Bolivia is truly the new frontier for world-class eared dove hunting. The habitat, feeding flights and style of hunting closely resembles the classic era of Mexico whitewing shooting at its best — flock after flock pouring into grain fields from surrounding roosting areas and then later returning to those roosts in larger flocks. There is one main distinction: in the bountiful plain of Bolivia's Gran Chaco region, there are vastly greater numbers of birds — a truly astonishing sight.

    At points during the morning and afternoon feeding flights it is possible to see thousands and even hundreds of thousands of birds in all directions!

    The hunting day also resembles Mexico in that the birds fly primarily between 7 a.m. and 10 a.m. and then again mid to late afternoon—providing a nice break in the middle of the day. During this break hunters can either return to the lodge for lunch and a nap or they can opt for a wonderful asado picnic of grilled meats and game birds, salads, fresh baked breads etc. and rest in a hammock or on a cot.

    The immigration of doves brings in vast numbers by late April—early May, and the birds stay until their eventual emigration in late November. The timing is quite nice, as the season corresponds with Bolivia's cooler months. Daily high-temperatures will range from the 60s to the 90s.
    As an added plus during most of the season, gunning for big picazuro pigeons is terrific, primarily over standing grain or over waterholes.

  • River fishing
  • Seasons
    Program of a tour



    Definition: A hypothetical supercontinent made up of South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. Presumed to have existed from 300 to 200 million years ago.
    History: In 1912 a German scientist, Alfred Wegener, was the first person to put forth the concept that the continents were joined at one time in the geologic past. He postulated a single great landmass, Pangaea. Later theorists describe the separation, late in the Triassic Period (245 to 208 million years ago), between the southern landmass, Gondwanaland, and Laurasia to the north.
    Geologic evidence for the land connection between the currently separated southern continents includes the occurrence of tillites (glacial deposits) from the time between the Carboniferous and Permian periods, and similar floras and faunas that are not found in the Northern Hemisphere. Rock strata containing this matching evidence are found in the Karroo System in South Africa, the Gondwana System in India, and the Santa Catharina System in South America.

    ...An Important Note About Fishing...
    Catch and Release - Almost every single fish pictured in this article and throughout our website was safely returned to the water after being photographed. On rare occasions, a specimen may be injured or selected for our table. We never sacrifice rare or large specimens. We firmly believe in catch and release fishing and we do everything in our power to preserve and protect the remarkable natural wonders that we have the privilege to enjoy.

    Peacock Bass

    Of all the incredible gamefish in the Amazon basin, the one that has received the most press is the peacock bass. Their remarkable, explosive topwater strike, combined with an astonishing ability to break heavy lines/leaders and straighten even stout saltwater hooks, makes them one of the most sought after species in the Amazon basin.
    Peacock bass are not a true bass such as the largemouth and smallmouth bass (Micopterus Sp.) found in North American waters, but comprise a genus within the family Cichlidae. Cichlids are a diverse family of tropical fish found primarily throughout Africa, South America and southern Asia.
    Although all peacock bass species are highly temperature sensitive fish, some have been successfully introduced in tropical areas from Panama to Hawaii. The latest transplants (C. ocellaris and C. monoculus) are happily swimming in many of the major freshwater irrigation channels in Dade County, Florida. No permanent populations of the giant species, C. temensis have ever been successfully transplanted outside of the Amazon basin and Lake Guri.

    Although there are countless color variations throughout their range, there are only four currently recognized species of peacock bass, C. temensis, C. ocellaris, C. monoculus and C. nigrolineatus (there is a raging debate among ichthyologists and anglers on this topic). All species are commonly called tucunaré in Brazil and Peru, while other Spanish speaking South American countries use the term pavón.


    Morphology: Although comprised of wildly differing species, cichlids share several unique physical characteristics. All have only one nostril on each side of the head, not two as in other fish and they have both a spiny, and a soft, dorsal and anal fin.
    Behavior: Cichlids show some of the most complex and highly evolved behavior patterns of all fish. Because of the family's diversity, it is difficult to ascribe characteristics to all members of the group. However, many generalities effectively apply to the majority of species. Cichlids are among the intellectuals of fish. They are highly intelligent and it has been shown by scientists that cichlids can learn. (The way they sometimes tear up my gear, I'd swear they knew who I was and had passed the word among themselves.) Cichlids are generally very aggressive and pugnacious. They are often extremely territorial.
    Reproduction: One generalization that can be made about New World cichlids is that they are all substrate spawners. Although some species may guard eggs or young in their mouths at some time during the brooding cycle, none are true mouthbreeders. Some (notably the famous aquarium discus) provide nourishment for the young directly from their bodies.
    The "Speckled" or "Blue" Peacock - Cichla temensis

    The ‘blue’ or ‘spotted’ tucunaré/pavón (Cichla temensis), better known as ‘azul’ or ‘paca/pinta lapa’ is the largest of the four species, with an average weight of about 6-pounds. The females (and especially females not old enough to spawn) are so distinctly spotted with a fawn pattern running laterally along their back, that many people think they are separate species. The name paca/pinta lapa comes from a 40-pound spotted jungle rodent called an agouti. As the males mature their spots fade out or disappear altogether. They also develop a distinct fatty lump on the top of their head during breeding season (this subsides after spawning). There is much speculation as to the purpose of this growth. It has been postulated that it is utilized as a food source by the peacock’s fry for several weeks after hatching. It is also thought that the peacock’s lump may disperse a chemical marker that keeps the young close to the adult. In clear water, one often sees tightly-packed clouds of peacock fry swarming about the head of their protective father. If a male is caught post-spawn, the growth on the head is often rubbed raw, as if the young have been nipping away at the swollen nodule.

    Body coloration and markings vary greatly. Whatever the color phase, this fish has an unmistakable mottled patch directly behind its eye. Three vertical black bars are usually visible (intensity varies from fish to fish) beginning just behind the pectoral fin and ending underneath the soft portion of the dorsal fin. Often, the previously mentioned lateral white spots are present, running along the top third of the fish's body. On rare occasions, there are neither black bars nor horizontal stripes/spots, however, the mottled patch directly behind the eye remains a distinct identifying characteristic. This species is found throughout the Brazilian, Venezuelan and Colombian Amazon. The largest specimens are caught in the Rio Negro tributaries of Brazil and Venezuela.

    Other Peacock Bass Species

    The butterfly tucunaré/pavón (Cichla ocellaris) is the most numerous and widespread species in the Amazon basin. This smaller fish has several different color phases, although hybridization is common. The most common color phase has three black, oscelli, or spots (about the size of a half dollar, depending on the size of the fish) running along its lateral line. Some 'butterflies' have no distinct body markings at all, but the absence of the black eye-patch clearly distinguishes them from their larger cousins. Average size for the butterfly peacock is about 3-pounds. The largest ‘butterflies’ rarely exceed 8-pounds.

    A third species, the ‘gray bar’ or ‘fire belly (Cichla monoculus)’ exhibits three black triangular-shaped markings along the back, with a distinct inkblot pattern above the belly. In the central Amazon, this fish does not commonly grow much over 3-pounds, but on the periphery of the basin (Brazil and Bolivia in particular), ‘gray bars’ can attain weightsexceeding 12 pound. ‘Gray bars’ are also found in Florida and Hawaii.

    The fourth species is the ‘royal’ tucunaré/pavón (Cichla nigrolineatus). This species is normally not found in Brazil, since it prefers fast water in a rocky habitat (it is most common in several Colombian and Venezuelan tributaries of the Orinoco River). The royal’s distinguishing features include a narrow, serrated, horizontal black ‘band’ that runs from just behind the gill plate, past the soft part of the dorsal fin (this ‘band’ is often broken up, but the fish's coloration remains quite distinctive from the 'butterfly.') Unlike the other three species, ‘royal’ peacocks prefer fast moving water and act very much like our smallmouth bass. ‘Royals’ reach a top weight of about 5-pounds.

    Conventional tackle for peacocks varies with location and fish size. Smaller peacock species can be taken using rods and reels commonly used for trophy largemouth. These smaller fish take a variety of topwater baits including Heddon Zara Spooks, small Luhr Jenson Woodchoppers/Rippers to name a few. 5-inch jerk baits such as Cotton Cordell Redfins or Rapalas, bucktail jigs (1/2 oz.) and weedless spoons also work well.

    Trophy peacocks require stout tackle. A stiff, musky/striper-weight casting or spinning rod along with a high-quality, fast retrieve ratio reel are essential – both to properly cast and retrieve large lures and to handle these incredibly powerful fish which tend to hold near nasty structure. Most veterans now use 30-50-pound braided lines. Anything less stout is easily broken. Top lures include the 6-3/4-inch Luhr Jensen Woodchopper/Ripper, Super Spooks, a variety of 7-inch jerk baits, big weedless spoons and extra-large bucktail jigs. Ffor more information: Peacock Primer II

    Fly casters take peacocks on a variety of oversized streamer, popper and slider patterns (tied on 4/0 or 5/0 extremely stout saltwater hooks) which match a multitude of large baitfish. For larger fish, a stiff 9-10-weight rod and both floating and sink tip lines are commonly used depending upon existing fishing conditions (an 8-weight is perfect for the smaller ‘butterflies’ and ‘grey bars.’ Heavy leaders (I use a straight 8-foot section of 50-pound monofilament) are essential to keep from breaking fish off.

    Other Large Cichlids

    Two other “game” species of Cichlids native to the Amazon basin are the oscar/palometa real (now also common throughout the south Florida canal system and commonly found in Bolivia)) and the jacundá / mataguaro (most common in Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia) which is a smaller close cousin of the peacock bass species in the genus Crenicichla. Oscar/palometa real and jacundá / mataguaro reach a maximum weight of about 6-pounds and aggressively take the same black bass-sized lures and flies mentioned above. Jacunda relate strongly to structure and strike very powerfully. They fight with strong, short runs and an intense, bulldog-like style. On an ultralight casting/spinning rod or 6- weight fly-rod and floating line, both species are a hoot to catch.

    Osteoglossiformes - Aruana and Arapaima

    Osteoglossiformes are an extremely ancient order of prehistoric freshwater fish. The arapaima, paiche or pirarucú as it is known in Brazil, is the largest wholly freshwater fish in the world. Fish over 3 meters (almost 10 feet) and up to 275 kg (600 lbs) have been recorded. Pirarucú look like some sort of Jurassic tarpon, with a similar profile save for their strange, club-shaped tail. The pirarucú’s flesh is much sought after throughout the Amazon and for this reason, large specimens are becoming rare.
    With patience and persistence, pirarucú can be taken on tarpon-sized conventional tackle, especially using 7-inch jerk baits (CD-14-18 Rapalas), although a large live baitfish (7/0 circle hook) dropped under a heavy cork is the best bet.
    This fish will, on rare occasions take a streamer fished in the deep lagoons it prefers to haunt. They are an extremely wary fish and must be approached with extreme caution. Pirarucú have both gills and an modified air bladder that acts as a lung, which they use to gulp in air.

    They have the unsettling habit of surfacing close to your boat like a giant prehistoric submarine. Tarpon-sized tackle is a must for these giants – 11-12-weight rod, 400-grain sink-tip line, heavy leaders and large streamers tied on 4/0 heavy saltwater hooks are standard equipment.
    Though pirarucú are found in ‘fishable’ numbers mainly in Brazil and Peru, it is important to note that a great deal of time must be devoted to the fish if one is to catch one on a fly rod.
    The aruanã (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum ) is a close relative of the pirarucú. They are a schooling fish that in rare cases can reach a maximum weight of about 15-pounds. Aruanã are extremely surface-oriented and can often be sight-fished as they cruise about just below the surface in search of prey. They take the same lures used for smaller peacocks (and especially love Heddon Zara spooks). A 7-8-weight fly rod, floating line and variety of medium-sized poppers and sliders (2/0) make for some exciting fishing. When hooked, aruanã repeatedly jump like a baby tarpon.

    Osteoglossum bicirrhosum

    The natives call this odd-looking silver creature "macaco d'agua", the "water monkey" bcause of its ability to leap more than six feet out of the water. In addition to small fish, aruanã eat , insects, small birds, bats and reptiles, which they will often snatch from overhanging branches.
    Their large, light-reflecting, opalescent scales and their fluid swimming movements make them underwater billboards for the sight fishing angler. They take a bait by opening their cargo-door mouth,

    inhaling it and then closing the gate. Although not a particularly powerful fish, they are highly prized as a gamefish in Brazil.
    The aruanã is also a very interesting and popular aquarium fish . One of the few remaining examples of fish surviving from the Jurassic period, they give observers a peek into an ancient prehistoric world.

    Osteoglossid Reproduction
    The arapima fans a large circle free of debris in areas of sandy bottoms. Eggs are laid in the 2 to 3 foot diameter nest.
    The aruanã, with two fleshy barbels on its lower jaw is a mouth brooder. Males carry the relatively small number of eggs and young in their mouths, thus increasing their chances for survival.

    Characins - Dorado, Yatorana and Matrinchá

    Freshwater dorado (Salminus maxillosus and S. hilarii) are a distinct migratory gamefish not to be confused with the saltwater dolphin fish (which is also called 'el dorado' in many Spanish-speaking countries). Physically, the freshwater dorado is best described as a prehistoric golden trout or salmon with the jaws of a pit bull terrier. Ichthyologists have appropriately given the southern species of dorado the Latin name, Salminus maxillosus. Salminus, meaning trout-like, and maxillosus referring to the fish's immensely-powerful jaws. Dorado are hard-hitting, incredibly-strong, acrobatic fighters that attain weights in excess of 30-pounds. They are, in short, South America’s hyped-up version of a ‘tropical trout.’ Dorado are commonly found throughout a massive watershed between southern Brazil/Bolivia and Northern Argentina. Incredibly, freshwater dorados remain a relatively little-known gamefish in the United States.

    Conventional gear for big dorado is virtually the same as that mentioned in the trophy peacock bass section (a wire leader is essential). Dorado are usually not surface oriented fish, so 7-inch jerk baits, Rattle Trap-type lures, spoons and jigs are most productive.
    Dorado are fished with an 8-9-weight fly rod and either a 200-grain, 24-foot sink tip line or a full floating line depending upon water conditions. A heavy steel leader is a must, as these fish will chew through 100-pound like it is sewing thread! Dorado take a variety of streamers, sliders and even Atlantic salmon-style Bombers during ideal conditions (all on 3/0 heavy long shank hooks). Northern Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia have the strongest populations of dorado.

    The bocón or palambra/yatorana (Holobrycon pesu) is a close relative of the dorado. They are a migratory, fast water fish found throughout the Amazon basin. Bocón live and behave almost exactly like the dorado, but do not reach the latter’s size, so they can be fished on slightly lighter tackle. Bolivia has the best populations of these fish.

    Matrinchá (Brycon falcatus) are a very close cousin to the bocón (they look almost exactly alike). This fish has an affinity for small baitfish and terrestrial insects and can be taken on small spoons, jigs, and jerk baits or small streamers and ant and beetle imitations in fast water (just like trout fishing). The matrinchã’s range seems to be limited to the Brazilian Amazon.


    Yatorana, called bocón, in Colombia and Venezuela, jump and fight like dorado and run in schools, so once you’re into them the action is fast and furious.

    Yatorana can grow upwards of 15-pounds. This is all the fish you’d want to tangle with one light tackle.


    Matrinchá are fierce fighters on light tackle. They strike baits at high speed and continue moving right through the drag. Within seconds they're out of the water and flying through the air.

    A small specimen of matrinchá shows off its brightly marked tail and dorsal fins. These highlights fade and ultimately disappear in older specimens

    Tambaqui / Cachama

    Members of the sub-family Colossoma of the Characidae, tambaqui (Colossoma macroponum) are physically built like a stocky permit or jack – think of a trash can lid with fins. They have a pleasant grey-blue back which fades into a purple-brown shade near the belly of the fish. An omnivorous distant relative of the piranha, tambaqui have dazzling teeth which look exactly like a set of human dentures. These fish have amazing jaw strength as they often feed on rock hard jungle seeds, and they can crush a 4/0 saltwater hook as if it were made of baling wire.

    A migratory fish, tambaqui reside in fast currents and are perfectly fit for such an environment. They have huge anal fins and extremely wide, thick tails. When hooked they use their powerful oval body against the current and make incredible heart stopping runs. With the force of the water added to their own power, they can be unstoppable even with the heaviest of terminal tackle. These fish are so strong that the locals fish for them with stout green saplings secured to 120-pound monofilament, heavy cable and 6/0 tuna hooks! One in three tambaqui will jump when hooked. To see such a huge fish throw itself out of the water is a spectacular sight. Until very recently tambaqui were not known to take flies or lures with any consistency, but for some reason the Bolivian strain are particularly aggressive and take flies and lures with abandon.

    Terminal tackle for these fish is the same as that used for big peacock bass, dorado and payara. Fifty pound-braid and an equally-stout wire leader are essential. Top lures include Blue Fox Vibrax spinners (#5), Yo Zuri Squid, bucktail jigs, and 5-inch jerk baits. If you really want to catch tambaqui, dead drift a sweet piece of jungle fruit on a 5/0 super stout live bait hook!

    Tambaqui should be fished with nothing less than a stout 9-weight fly rod as they tend to use the current to their advantage and make extremely powerful runs. These fish will take the same flies listed in the dorado section, including heavily-dressed 3/0 Cloussers and Muddlers (they seem to prefer blue for some strange reason). They also take “fruit flies,” which are nothing more than brightly-colored deer hair (yellow or bright orange are best) spun and clipped to look like an apricot.

    The Fish, the Forest and the Fruit
    Tambaqui, the largest of all the characins, are creatures of the Amazon's flooded forest. The pulsative nature of Amazonia's lowland rivers creates vast flooded forests during the region's long rainy seasons. Rivers flood their banks and inundate adjacent varzea (flooded) forests. As though a dinner bell were rung, the area's wildlife flocks to the new border between land and water to feast on a banquet of flowers and fruits
    Tambaqui are an integral part of the varzea's life cycle. Feeding on the bounty of fruits and nuts that drop into the water, they become an important mechanism for seed dispersal. Many jungle fruits contain an outer pulp and a hard inner seed(s). When small seeds are ingested they are not always crushed by the tambaqui's powerful jaws. Passing through the fish's digestive system, the seeds are scarified by the process and then excreted, often far from the parent tree. Later, when the waters recede, the prepared seed is able to sprout in the newly exposed land, far from where it dropped.
    When the varzea drains, well-fed tambaqui leave the small tributaries and form large migrating schools in the main rivers. Their large fat reserves, built up during the rainy season are used during their upriver journeys and ensuing spawning. It's believed that their eggs are dispersed in the grassy levees along the river. The dry season season provides slim pickings for tanbaqui who often turn to small fish and insects to help fill their empty stomachs.
    Tambaqui are an important food fish. They have recently begun to be raised by aquaculture techniques to meet the market demand. This bodes well for the preservation of natural populations.

    Pacu and Piranha

    The pacú/morocoto (Piaractus brachypomus) is a smaller relative of the giant tambaqui. Morocoto will take Rat-L-Traps, large grasshoppers and dead drifted fruit. Fly casters should use 2/0 Clousser Minnows and especially fruit-colored Glo Bugs dead-drifted in trout/salmon fashion. There are at least half a dozen other, smaller species collectively called pacú in Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. One Brazilian species takes a “bread fly” in moving water like a trout sipping a dry fly.

    There are over a dozen species of piranha (Serrasalmus sp.) swimming the rivers from Argentina to Venezuela. Some grow larger than 6-pounds and can be fantastic light tackle adversaries (especially on smaller spinning/casting rods or a 5-6-weight fly rod). Needless to say, piranha are not picky eaters and take literally anything remotely resembling a baitfish. A small Rat-L-Trap tipped with meat is deadly. These feisty little creatures can, at times, be quite a nuisance as they have a nasty habit of destroying your lures or that custom-tied eight-dollar streamer the second it hits the water.

    The Piranha's dentition has made them the Hollywood horror stars of the fish world. In spite of their vicious reputation, most species feed on fish, some specializing in hit and run scale eating. The greatest danger they present to the angler is the safe removal of hooks from their horrid litle jaws. They do, however, taste very good pan-fried.


    Payara/Peixe Cachorro (Hydrolicus scomberoides) are a ferocious migratory gamefish from the family Cynodontidae. Think of them as a sort of Jurassic salmon. They are built somewhat like a large Atlantic salmon and share a similar metallic silver sheen. The mouth of the payara is what sets them apart from all other gamefish, as they sport an intimidating set of razor sharp fangs which protrude from the lower jaw like two glistening ivory framing nails.

    Payara prefer to reside in extremely fast water and take both lures and flies with such savage force that one can easily rip the rod from your grasp if you are not paying close attention. Once hooked, a large payara will effortlessly peel off 150-yards of line/backing despite a thirty-pound leader, strong drag and stiff rod. Payara also make repeated salmon-style jumps, which adds to the fish’s allure. Although payara receive much less press than peacock bass, many anglers rate them above peacocks in terms of both sheer strength, stamina and overall fighting ability (and that’s saying something!)

    Conventional gear for payara is virtually the same as that mentioned in the trophy peacock bass and dorado sections (wire leader is essential). Payara are usually not surface oriented fish, so big Rapalas, 7-inch jerk baits, Rat-L-Trap type lures, spoons and jigs are most productive.
    Similar to the above-mentioned dorado, payara are fished with a slightly heavier 9-10-weight fly rod and either a 300 or 400-grain, 24-foot sink tip line depending upon water conditions. They can be fished with a full floating line, but only during extreme conditions as they prefer to reside in deep, fast current. A heavy mono leader tipped with stout steel tippet is essential. Payara take a variety of large streamers, but prefer heavily-dressed Cloussers and Muddlers tied on a 4/0 heavy saltwater tarpon hook.

    Many smaller species of payara/peixe-cachorra (Hydrolicus and Rhaphiodon Sp.) are found throughout South America. Although all are fast, vicious predators, most rarely exceed 5-pounds. The best places to catch giant trophy payara are Uraima Falls, the Caura River and several sections of the Orinoco and Ventuari Rivers (all in Venezuela).

    Another World Class Fighter

    Payara take the art of the fight to another level. They combine some of the best characteristics known among fighting fish to provide an extraordinary angling experience. Payara are extremely aggressive and strike with intense power. They peel off line in long fast runs. And when all else fails, they hurl their huge, slablike bodies high into the air. If these fish were commonly found in the same "small-water" conditions as peacock bass, they would rarely be landed.

    Rhaphiodon vulpinus, a smaller and more elongate relative of the payara is common in the slower lowland waters of the Amazon Basin. Like its larger, fast-water cousin, it's a fast, fierce predator.

    Readily taken on flies, they are a pugnacious light-tackle target.

    Traira and Aimara

    One of my Brazilian guides once referred to guabina/traira and aimara/trairão as giant bars of soap with a mouth full of teeth. These ferocious, prehistoric looking fish are reminiscent of the ancient coelacanth, or a cross between a bowfin and a carp. The guabina, or traira in Brazil, is the smaller of the two species, reaching a top weight of about 10-pounds. They are found from the northern Amazonian periphery in Venezuela all the way to central Argentina in the Paraná River drainage. These fish prefer slack water and attack largemouth bass-sized topwater lures or fly rod poppers and sliders with reckless abandon. Don’t forget your wire leaders though – one look at this fish’s choppers and you’ll understand why. A 7-8-weight rod spooled with floating line and a stout butt section tied to fairly heavy wire is just the ticket for these bruisers.

    The traira’s larger cousin, the aimara or trairão is truly the stuff of angling nightmares. It attains weights in excess of 50-pounds and eats anything it damn well pleases. Big jerk baits, spoons, jigs, streamers and or large sliders/poppers fished in the eddies and pools adjacent to fast water are all susceptible to attack. Once hooked, this evil-looking fish thinks it’s a tarpon and jumps repeatedly. Heavy conventional tackle is key to get one of these bruisers in the boat. Anything less than a 10-weight rod, stout 4/0 stainless saltwater hooks, heavy butt and wire leader would be a big mistake as these monsters have a nasty reputation for heading headlong into the nearest available timber and rocks. The best place to catch these fish is at Uraima Falls, in the tributaries feeding into Venezuela’s Guri Lake and several western and southern tributaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    More about breathing air...
    Traira, members of the characoid sub-family Erythrinidae, are examples of facultative (part-time) air breathers. Using vascularized (blood-rich) tissues in their skin, stomachs and swim bladders, this group of fish uses air to augment the oxygen they receive from water during hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions . This ability allows traira to utilize an unusual niche within their environment. They can often be found patrolling the very ends of quiet lagoons, or lurking, hidden at the edge of muddy, shallow shorelines. They suddenly explode into action engulfing any unwary bird, mouse or lizard that comes to the water's edge to drink.

    Pike-like Characins

    The bicuda/aguja (Boulengerella maculata) is a powerful, fast water fish that can be found mixed in with the other previously-mentioned species. It reaches a maximum size of about 10-pounds and is a powerful, acrobatic fighter.

    Picúa/cachorra (Acestrorhynchus falcatus) is a sort of freshwater barracuda that roams about (mixed in with the peacock bass) in small packs terrorizing schools of baitfish. These fish don't grow very big (2-pounds maximum), but they're extremely aggressive, plentiful and hard fighting on light conventional rods or a 5-6-weight fly rod.

    Sardinata - Saltwater Transplants

    The Sardinata/apapá (Amazon pellona), a clupeid fish, is an exceptional, yet little-known migratory gamefish that fights like, and is related to tarpon. The fish averages about 8-pounds, but commonly grows upwards of 20-pounds. Sardinata look a lot like a small tarpon, except they have a brilliant golden holographic coloration, reminiscent of the freshwater dorado. These ‘golden freshwater tarpon’ typically reside in fast water and will take both flies and lures with reckless abandon. Sardinata are extremely topwater oriented and actually prefer to take noisy surface flies and lures over subsurface alternatives. Zara spooks and popping-type surface baits are best for these scrappers.

    Fly casters have the best luck throwing 2/0 Gaine’s-style poppers on an 8-weight rod spooled with a weight-forward floating line. The strike of a sardinata is nearly as violent as that of the ferocious peacock bass, and once hooked, these fish run and jump repeatedly just like their silver-sided cousins. Sardinata are a schooling fish and once one is hooked, more strikes are sure to follow. Sardinata are found throughout the Orinoco drainage (Venezuela’s Caura River has the best populations of the fish I have encountered) as well as many Amazon tributaries.

    Why marine fish in fresh-water?

    The Amazon today is a river flowing east that empties into the Atlantic Ocean. This wasn't always so. It is theorized that tens of millions of years ago, the Amazon Basin was a huge Pacific ocean bay. When the Andes mountains pushed their way toward the sky, the Basin and its waters were permanently cut off from the Pacific. Many marine animals, trapped by the rising mountains, slowly adapted as the Amazon changed. The waters, forced their way through the eastern lowlands and found their way to the Atlantic. Rainwater gradually freshened the system and the rays, dolphins and marine fish evolved into today's Amazonian saltwater transplants.


    There are countless species of catfish throughout the Amazon and Paraná drainages. They range in size from the diabolical candirú (Pygidiidae), a tiny parasitic catfish that lodges itself in the urethral openings of other fish or animals (or humans) to the monstrous lau lau or valentón/piraiba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum), which is said to grow over 10-feet long and weigh in excess of 500-pounds).

    Cut or whole bait, fished deep on a 8-10/0 circle hook is deadly. A stout offshore rod/reel combo spooled with 130-pound braid is recommended as these monsters can literally tow a 16-foot bass boat upstream!

    The golden catfish, Dourado (Brachyplatystoma flavicans), Suribim display bright markings.
    There are several Amazonian catfish that will aggressively take a fly, including several species collectively called bagre rayado (Pseudoplatystoma sp.). It is important to note that these catfish are nothing like our local ‘cats’ which tend to be bottom-feeding and rather lethargic. Many of the larger species of Amazonian catfish are migratory, extremely active and aggressive predators that live in fast water and actively feed with the other previously-mentioned gamefish. Pound for pound, these ‘cats’ are as strong – if not stronger – than any fish I’ve had on a rod and reel.

    Forage Species

    Anglers often learn much about the species they pursue by studying what they eat. Predator species typically base their movements, behavior and even life cycles on the habits of their prey. Although there are hundreds of species of baitfish throughout the basin, below are some of the most commonly found (and eaten) species...
    Many of these can be recognized as common aquarium species.

    Catch and Release - Almost every single fish pictured here was safely returned to the water after being photographed. On rare occasions, a specimen may be injured or selected for our table. We never sacrifice rare or large specimens. We firmly believe in catch and release fishing and we do everything in our power to preserve and protect the remarkable natural wonders that it is our privilege to enjoy.

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